What is ZKM?
ZKM (or zkMIPS) is a Universal and General-Purpose ZK Proof System whose main purpose is to turn Ethereum into a global settlement layer.
What is the mission and vision of ZKM?
The mission of ZKM is to utilize and build on Zero-Knowledge Proof (ZKP) capabilities. The vision of ZKM is to unite all Layer 2 (L2) and Layer 1 (L1) blockchain networks into a Global Settlement Layer on Ethereum. It also aims to enable tamper-proof Internet of Things (IoT) devices and cloud computing.
What challenges does ZKM aim to address?
The project aims to address several challenges, including the elimination of the 7-day Withdrawal Window, achieving Unified Security for all Layer 2 (L2) solutions and alternative Layer 1 (Alt L1) blockchain networks, as well as enabling tamper-proof Internet of Things (IoT) and cloud computing. By tackling these challenges, the project seeks to provide faster and more convenient fund withdrawals, establish a standardized security framework across diverse L2 and Alt L1 platforms, and enhance the security and integrity of IoT devices and cloud computing systems.
What are the main features of ZKM?
The main features of zkMIPS (Zero-Knowledge Proof MIPS) include:
One ZKP for All: By securing the CPU/MIPS beneath every VM, framework, or app above, all software above the CPU is secured. This allows everyone to claim Zero-Knowledge Proof (ZKP) security without needing to perform ZK proofing themselves.
Work with All VMs: zkMIPS sits beneath every Virtual Machine (VM), enabling compatibility with various blockchain smart contract engine VMs, such as MoveVM (zkMVM), WASM (zkWASM), and RustVM (zkRVM).
Plug and Play Adoption: Developers can adopt zkMIPS without changing or adapting their existing codebase for ZKP. It offers zero- or low-cost adoption and technology-agnostic adoption, allowing the use of different smart contract languages and even traditional programming languages.
Long-Term Stability: Leveraging the stability of the MIPS instruction set, zkMIPS eliminates concerns about constantly changing EVM instruction sets, providing a more stable environment for development.
Free Security for All: zkMIPS leverages the large, decentralized security base of Ethereum to validate all transactions, ensuring security for both blockchain and non-blockchain applications.
Better L2 Rollup User Experience: With zkMIPS-enabled Hybrid Rollup, users can enjoy an improved experience. Former Optimistic Rollup users benefit from instant confirmation and finality without waiting for a 7-day withdrawal period from Layer 2 to Layer 1. Depository users experience doubled security through ZKP verification and a fraud-proof challenge window that can be extended well beyond the standard 7-day window for safe transfers of large amounts.
Going Far Beyond L2s, and Beyond Blockchain: zkMIPS expands the scope of Optimistic Rollups' potential market. It extends its reach to alternative Layer 1 blockchains (such as BNB, Celo, etc.), providing the benefits of zkMIPS security. Additionally, zkMIPS enables tamper-proof Internet of Things (IoT) devices and enhances security in cloud computing environments.
What is a Hybrid Rollup?
Hybrid Rollup is a Rollup protocol that combines two existing Rollup solutions, Optimistic Rollup and ZK Rollup, into a single cohesive protocol.
What are Optimistic Rollup and ZK Rollup?
Optimistic Rollup and ZK Rollup are two distinct Layer 2 scaling solutions for blockchain networks. Optimistic Rollup relies on optimistic execution and fraud proofs, while ZK Rollup utilizes zero-knowledge proofs for scalability.
How does Hybrid Rollup address the shortcomings of Optimistic Rollup and ZK Rollup?
Hybrid Rollup aims to overcome the limitations of both Optimistic Rollup and ZK Rollup by combining their strengths. It leverages the efficiency and scalability benefits of ZK Rollup's zero-knowledge proofs while accommodating the flexibility and composability of Optimistic Rollup's optimistic execution. Its ZK capability facilitates near-instant withdrawal times for Optimistic Rollup users, while its stable, MIPS-enabled instruction set eliminates the challenge of zkEVM instability. (More on MIPS below)
What advantages does Hybrid Rollup offer?
Hybrid Rollup provides a broader range of use cases compared to Optimistic Rollup and ZK Rollup individually. It aims to deliver improved scalability, enhanced security, and increased flexibility for decentralized applications (dApps) and blockchain ecosystems.
Can you give examples of use cases where Hybrid Rollup can be beneficial?
Hybrid Rollup can be advantageous in various scenarios, such as decentralized finance (DeFi) applications, non-fungible token (NFT) marketplaces, gaming platforms, supply chain management, and any other use case that requires high transaction throughput and reduced costs on a blockchain network.
What is MIPS?
MIPS is a computer architecture that stands for Microprocessor without Interlocked Pipeline Stages. It is a reduced instruction set computing (RISC) architecture developed by MIPS Technologies.
What does the term "Interlocked Pipeline Stages" mean in MIPS?
"Interlocked Pipeline Stages" refers to a feature in some computer architectures where pipeline stages can be stalled or delayed due to dependencies between instructions. MIPS, on the other hand, does not have interlocked pipeline stages, which allows for simpler and more efficient pipeline execution.
What are the advantages of using MIPS?
Some advantages of MIPS include a simplified instruction set, high performance, low power consumption, and good code density. It is often used in embedded systems, digital signal processing, and other applications that require efficient execution of instructions.
Which companies have used MIPS in their products?
MIPS has been used by various companies, including Sony, Toshiba, Cisco Systems, and many others. It has been employed in gaming consoles, networking equipment, routers, and other devices.
What are some common instructions in MIPS?
Common MIPS instructions include arithmetic operations (add, subtract, multiply, divide), logical operations (and, or, not), memory access (load, store), control flow (branch, jump), and data movement (move, copy).
Can I run MIPS programs on a personal computer?
Yes, you can run MIPS programs on a personal computer using an emulator or simulator that emulates the MIPS architecture. There are various MIPS simulators available that allow you to execute and test your MIPS programs on a PC. One example of a MIPS emulator is the "MARS" (MIPS Assembler and Runtime Simulator) emulator. MARS is a Java-based emulator that provides a complete development environment for MIPS assembly language programming. It offers a graphical user interface (GUI) and supports a range of MIPS instruction sets.
Is MIPS an open-source architecture?
Yes, MIPS is now available as an open-source architecture. In 2018, MIPS Technologies was acquired by Wave Computing, which subsequently released the MIPS instruction set architecture (ISA) as open source.
Can I run operating systems like Linux on MIPS-based devices?
Yes, MIPS-based devices can run operating systems like Linux. Linux has been ported to MIPS architecture, and there are distributions available that support MIPS-based systems.
Is MIPS a 32-bit or 64-bit architecture?
MIPS can support both 32-bit and 64-bit architectures. The original MIPS architecture was 32-bit, but later versions and extensions introduced support for 64-bit processing.
Can I develop software for MIPS architecture using popular programming languages like C or C++?
Yes, you can develop software for MIPS architecture using popular programming languages like C or C++. MIPS compilers are available that can translate high-level code written in languages like C or C++ into MIPS assembly language or machine code.
Does MIPS support multi-core processors?
Yes, MIPS architecture supports multi-core processors. Multi-core MIPS processors have been developed, allowing for parallel execution of instructions and improved performance in multi-threaded applications.
Is MIPS suitable for real-time systems?
Yes, MIPS is often used in real-time systems. Its simplified instruction set and deterministic execution make it well-suited for applications that require real-time responsiveness, such as automotive systems, industrial control, and medical devices.
Can I use MIPS to develop software for embedded systems?
Yes, MIPS is commonly used for developing software for embedded systems. Its low power consumption, compact code size, and efficient execution make it well-suited for various embedded applications, including consumer electronics, automotive systems, and industrial devices. This was one of our motives when designing architecture for zkMIPS.
What is the difference between MIPS and ARM architectures?
MIPS and ARM are both RISC architectures but have some architectural differences. MIPS has a fixed instruction size of 32 bits, while ARM supports variable instruction sizes (16-bit and 32-bit). MIPS uses delayed branching, whereas ARM uses conditional execution. Additionally, the instruction sets and registers of MIPS and ARM architectures differ.
Can I use MIPS to develop software for embedded systems?
Yes, MIPS is commonly used for developing software for embedded systems. Its low power consumption, compact code size, and efficient execution make it well-suited for various embedded applications, including consumer electronics, automotive systems, and industrial devices.
What is Cannon?
Cannon is a virtual machine (VM) implementation designed for the Optimistic Rollup scaling solution developed by Optimism. It serves as the execution environment for smart contracts on the Ethereum blockchain, offering scalability improvements and reduced transaction costs.
How does Cannon improve scalability?
Cannon improves scalability by employing Optimistic Rollup, a Layer 2 scaling solution. It allows for off-chain execution and validation of transactions, with a compressed summary of the transactions recorded on the Ethereum blockchain. This reduces congestion and increases transaction throughput.
Can existing Ethereum smart contracts run on Cannon?
Yes, existing Ethereum smart contracts can run on Cannon. The VM is compatible with the Ethereum Virtual Machine (EVM), which means that most Ethereum smart contracts can be deployed and executed on the Optimism - Cannon network with minor modifications.
What programming languages are supported by Cannon?
Cannon supports programming languages that are compatible with the Ethereum ecosystem. Solidity, the most widely used language for Ethereum smart contracts, is fully supported. Other languages that compile to EVM bytecode, such as Vyper or LLL, can also be used.
Are there any limitations or differences when developing for Cannon compared to Ethereum?
While Cannon is designed to maintain a high degree of compatibility with Ethereum, there may be some differences and limitations. For example, gas costs, transaction finality, and some opcode behavior might differ. It is important to refer to the Optimism documentation and guidelines when developing for the Optimism Cannon network.
How does Cannon handle transaction finality?
Cannon achieves transaction finality through the use of fraud proofs. Transactions and their corresponding execution results are initially assumed to be valid, but if a fraud proof is submitted that proves otherwise, the Ethereum mainnet can roll back the incorrect state updates.
Can I interact with smart contracts deployed on Cannon from the Ethereum mainnet?
Yes, it is possible to interact with smart contracts deployed on Cannon from the Ethereum mainnet. Cross-chain communication protocols and bridge contracts can be used to transfer assets or invoke functionality between the two networks.
What is a zero-knowledge proof (ZKP)?
A zero-knowledge proof is a cryptographic protocol that allows one party (the prover) to prove to another party (the verifier) the validity of a statement without revealing any additional information beyond the truth of the statement itself.
What is the purpose of zero-knowledge proofs?
Zero-knowledge proofs are used to demonstrate the truthfulness of a claim or statement without disclosing any sensitive or confidential information. They enable secure and private interactions where trust and verification are required.
How does a zero-knowledge proof work?
In a zero-knowledge proof, the prover convinces the verifier of the truth of a statement without revealing any underlying information. This is accomplished by constructing an interactive protocol that demonstrates knowledge of information that could only be known if the statement were true.
Are zero-knowledge proofs secure?
Zero-knowledge proofs are designed to be secure and provide strong cryptographic guarantees. However, the security of zero-knowledge proofs relies on the underlying cryptographic assumptions and the proper implementation of the protocols.
Can zero-knowledge proofs be verified without knowing the underlying secret?
Yes, zero-knowledge proofs can be verified by the verifier without knowing the underlying secret or information. The verifier can validate the proof's integrity and correctness based on the interactions and responses received from the prover.
What is a zkSTARK?
zkSTARK is a cryptographic proof system that enables the creation of zero-knowledge proofs for demonstrating knowledge of certain statements without revealing any sensitive information. It stands for Zero-Knowledge Scalable Transparent Arguments of Knowledge.
How does zkSTARK differ from other zero-knowledge proof systems?
zkSTARKs are different from other zero-knowledge proof systems like zkSNARKs (Zero-Knowledge Succinct Non-Interactive Arguments of Knowledge) in terms of transparency and scalability. zkSTARKs offer transparent setups, which means they do not require a trusted setup, and they are designed to be scalable for larger computations.
What are the advantages of zkSTARKs?
zkSTARKs offer several advantages, including transparency, which eliminates the need for a trusted setup ceremony. They also provide scalability, allowing for efficient verification of complex computations without sacrificing security or privacy.
What are zkSTARKs used for?
zkSTARKs have various applications, including privacy-preserving transactions, secure multiparty computation, verifiable computation, and proving integrity of large datasets. They can be used in blockchain technologies, ensuring privacy and security while verifying the validity of transactions or computations.
How does the verification process work with zkSTARKs?
In zkSTARKs, the verifier can efficiently and publicly verify the correctness of the prover's claim without knowledge of any underlying information. The prover constructs a zkSTARK proof that convinces the verifier that the statement is true without revealing the secret inputs.
Are zkSTARKs post-quantum secure?
zkSTARKs are believed to be post-quantum secure, which means they are resistant to attacks by powerful quantum computers. Their security relies on mathematical problems that are considered hard to solve, even with quantum algorithms.
Are zkSTARKs computationally efficient?
zkSTARKs are generally more computationally intensive compared to some other zero-knowledge proof systems. The proof generation and verification processes involve complex computations. However, ongoing research aims to optimize zkSTARKs for improved efficiency.
What is Arithmetic Intermediate Representation (AIR) in the context of zero-knowledge proofs?
Arithmetic Intermediate Representation (AIR) is an intermediate language or format used to express arithmetic computations and constraints in a standardized manner within zero-knowledge proof systems.
How does AIR facilitate the generation of zero-knowledge proofs?
AIR provides a structured and standardized representation for arithmetic computations, making it easier to optimize and transform them into more efficient forms for generating zero-knowledge proofs.
What are the benefits of using AIR in zero-knowledge proofs?
Using AIR allows for the separation of the computation from the proof generation process, enhancing the analysis, optimization, and validation of zero-knowledge proofs. AIR also enables the efficient expression of arithmetic constraints in a higher-level format.
How does MIPS architecture enhance IoT device performance?
MIPS architecture enhances IoT device performance through its efficient instruction set design and optimized memory management. MIPS processors can handle complex computations efficiently, enabling faster data processing and improved overall performance in IoT applications.
Can MIPS processors address the power consumption challenges of IoT devices?
Yes, MIPS processors are designed to address power consumption challenges in IoT devices. MIPS architecture offers power management features, low-power states, and efficient instruction execution, allowing IoT devices to achieve optimal power efficiency without compromising performance.
Does MIPS integration enable secure and reliable communication in IoT ecosystems?
MIPS integration can enable secure and reliable communication in IoT ecosystems. By incorporating cryptographic algorithms and secure execution environments, MIPS processors enhance the security of IoT devices, protecting data transmission and ensuring trustworthiness.
How does MIPS architecture contribute to data processing at the edge in IoT applications?
MIPS architecture contributes to data processing at the edge in IoT applications by offering efficient computation capabilities. MIPS-based edge devices can perform local data processing and analysis, reducing latency, improving real-time responsiveness, and minimizing reliance on cloud resources.
Can MIPS processors handle the computational demands of complex Machine Learning models?
Yes, MIPS processors can handle the computational demands of complex Machine Learning models. With their powerful and efficient architecture, MIPS processors can perform matrix operations, vector calculations, and other intensive tasks required by Machine Learning algorithms.
Does MIPS integration enable on-device Machine Learning capabilities?
Yes, MIPS integration can enable on-device Machine Learning capabilities. By incorporating MIPS processors into edge devices and IoT devices, Machine Learning models can be deployed and executed locally, reducing the need for constant data transmission and enhancing privacy and real-time responsiveness.
How does MIPS architecture optimize energy efficiency in Machine Learning applications?
MIPS architecture is designed to optimize energy efficiency, making it suitable for low-power devices used in Machine Learning applications. By leveraging power management techniques and efficient instruction execution, MIPS processors can minimize energy consumption while maintaining high-performance levels.
How does MIPS architecture contribute to cloud computing?
MIPS architecture offers benefits such as efficient instruction execution, scalability, and support for virtualization, making it well-suited for cloud computing environments. MIPS-based processors can deliver reliable performance and handle diverse workloads in cloud-based applications.
Can developers leverage MIPS-based development tools and frameworks for cloud application development?
Yes, developers can leverage MIPS-based development tools and frameworks for cloud application development. MIPS offers a range of software development kits (SDKs), libraries, and tools that enable developers to optimize applications, enhance performance, and streamline deployment in cloud computing environments.
Can MIPS processors provide cost-effective solutions for cloud computing providers?
Yes, MIPS processors can provide cost-effective solutions for cloud computing providers. Their energy-efficient design, scalability, and competitive performance-to-price ratio make MIPS-based systems an attractive choice for building cloud infrastructure.